Asthma medicine halves risk of Parkinson's

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Asthma medicine halves risk of Parkinson’s
Source: Science Daily
Using data gathered from 100 million Norwegian prescriptions, researchers have found that asthma medicine can halve a patient’s risk of developing Parkinson´s disease.
READ MORE: Asthma medicine halves risk of Parkinson’s

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New genetic risk factor for developing autism spectrum disorder identified

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New genetic risk factor for developing autism spectrum disorder identified
Source: Science Daily
A new systematic analysis has been applied to a cohort of 2,300 families who have a single child affected with autism. The study focused on identifying and characterizing low-lying genetic mutations that may have been missed in previous research, given these mutations are only present in a fraction of the bulk DNA of an individual.
READ MORE: New genetic risk factor for developing autism spectrum disorder identified

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Mouth clicks used in human echolocation captured in unprecedented detail

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Mouth clicks used in human echolocation captured in unprecedented detail
Source: Science Daily
Like some bats and marine mammals, people can develop expert echolocation skills, in which they produce a clicking sound with their mouths and listen to the reflected sound waves to ‘see’ their surroundings. A new study provides the first in-depth analysis of the mouth clicks used in human echolocation.
READ MORE: Mouth clicks used in human echolocation captured in unprecedented detail

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New source for brain's development discovered

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New source for brain’s development discovered
Source: Science Daily
An unexpected source for the brain’s development has been discovered by researchers, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system.
READ MORE: New source for brain’s development discovered

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New findings on brain functional connectivity may lend insights into mental disorders

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New findings on brain functional connectivity may lend insights into mental disorders
Source: Science Daily
Ongoing advances in understanding the functional connections within the brain are producing exciting insights into how the brain circuits function together to support human behavior — and may lead to new discoveries in the development and treatment of psychiatric disorders, according to a review.
READ MORE: New findings on brain functional connectivity may lend insights into mental disorders

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Yawning: Why is it so contagious and why should it matter?

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Yawning: Why is it so contagious and why should it matter?
Source: Science Daily
Feeling tired? Even if we aren’t tired, why do we yawn if someone else does? Experts have published research that suggests the human propensity for contagious yawning is triggered automatically by primitive reflexes in the primary motor cortex — an area of the brain responsible for motor function. Their study is another stage in their research into the underlying biology of neuropsychiatric disorders and their search for new methods of treatment.
READ MORE: Yawning: Why is it so contagious and why should it matter?

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Scents and social preference: Neuroscientists ID the roots of attraction

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Scents and social preference: Neuroscientists ID the roots of attraction
Source: Science Daily
Culminating a series of studies stretching back eight years, biologists have identified the cellular and molecular basis for social preference, known in the animal kingdom as ‘imprinting.’ Through in vivo experiments, the researchers found the neurological roots of kinship attraction and aversion. They also employed genetics screening to find the regulators controlling this behavior. The study carries implications for understanding social attraction and aversion in a range of animals and humans.
READ MORE: Scents and social preference: Neuroscientists ID the roots of attraction

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People become more economically conservative when angered

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People become more economically conservative when angered
Source: Science Daily
People tend to lean more economically conservative when they’re angry, according to a new article. Researchers came to the conclusion after running multiple studies that included more than 1,000 participants.
READ MORE: People become more economically conservative when angered

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How reading and writing with your child boost more than just literacy

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How reading and writing with your child boost more than just literacy
Source: Science Daily
Children who read and write at home — whether for assignments or just for fun — are building long-term study and executive function skills, according to a new article
READ MORE: How reading and writing with your child boost more than just literacy

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Mind wandering is common during driving

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Mind wandering is common during driving
Source: Science Daily
Scientists have investigated mind wandering in volunteers during a driving simulation. Astonishingly, during the simulation, the volunteers reported mind wandering 70 percent of the time. The researchers could identify specific changes in brain patterns when the volunteers were mind wandering, but need to do further work to clarify if it is dangerous during driving.
READ MORE: Mind wandering is common during driving

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Children's sleep quality linked to mothers' insomnia

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Children’s sleep quality linked to mothers’ insomnia
Source: Science Daily
Children sleep more poorly if their mothers suffer from insomnia symptoms – potentially affecting their mental wellbeing and development – according to new research. Nearly 200 school kids and their parents were studied, results indicating that children whose mothers have insomnia symptoms fall asleep later, get less sleep and spend less time in deep sleep. There appeared to be no link between fathers’ insomnia symptoms and children’s sleep.
READ MORE: Children’s sleep quality linked to mothers’ insomnia

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First look at potentially deadly metabolic disorder that strikes infants

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First look at potentially deadly metabolic disorder that strikes infants
Source: Science Daily
You may have never heard of congenital disorder of glycosylation, but parents whose children are born with forms of this rare — and underreported — metabolic disorder know all too well the dangers they pose, including developmental delay, failure to thrive, stroke-like symptoms, seizures and cerebellar dysfunction.
READ MORE: First look at potentially deadly metabolic disorder that strikes infants

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Perfect mannequins a turnoff for some consumers

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Perfect mannequins a turnoff for some consumers
Source: Science Daily
Mannequins’ long legs, tiny waistlines and perfect busts can sour some shoppers on the products they’re wearing, especially consumers who don’t like the look of their own bodies.
READ MORE: Perfect mannequins a turnoff for some consumers

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E-cigarettes can help smokers quit, but there's a catch

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E-cigarettes can help smokers quit, but there’s a catch
Source: Science Daily
Frequent e-cigarette use does help smokers quit — a finding that researchers say supports the use of e-cigarettes as a cessation aid for those trying to quit cigarette smoking. But, they note, an examination of a recent national survey uncovers important clues about who’s successful at quitting and why.
READ MORE: E-cigarettes can help smokers quit, but there’s a catch

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Understanding perceptions of reputation, identity offers opportunity, study shows

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Understanding perceptions of reputation, identity offers opportunity, study shows
Source: Science Daily
Regardless of how people personally view another person, they also are aware of how that person sees themselves, as well as how they are generally perceived by others, research concludes.
READ MORE: Understanding perceptions of reputation, identity offers opportunity, study shows

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Monkeys with Parkinson's disease benefit from human stem cells

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Monkeys with Parkinson’s disease benefit from human stem cells
Source: Science Daily
Japanese neurosurgeons report two new strategies to improve outcomes of iPS cell-based therapies for Parkinson’s disease in monkey brains. The findings are a key step for patient recruitment of the first iPS cell-based therapy to treat neurodegenerative diseases.
READ MORE: Monkeys with Parkinson’s disease benefit from human stem cells

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Dating? A magic formula to predict attraction is more elusive than ever

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Dating? A magic formula to predict attraction is more elusive than ever
Source: Science Daily
Dating websites often claim attraction between two people can be predicted from the right combination of traits and preferences, but a new study casts doubt on that assertion. The study, which used speed dating data, found a computer could predict who is desirable and how much someone would desire others — who’s hot and who’s not — but it could not unravel the mystery of unique desire for a specific person.
READ MORE: Dating? A magic formula to predict attraction is more elusive than ever

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Robotic system monitors specific neurons

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Robotic system monitors specific neurons
Source: Science Daily
Engineers have devised a way to automate the process of patch-clamping, using a computer algorithm that analyzes microscope images and guides a robotic arm to the target cell to record its electrical activity.
READ MORE: Robotic system monitors specific neurons

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Millennials prefer healthy habits, less likely to choose opioids to manage pain

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Millennials prefer healthy habits, less likely to choose opioids to manage pain
Source: Science Daily
Often spending their days hunched over phones, tablets or computers and their free time at spin class or playing sports, millennials are the next generation poised to experience chronic pain. Even at their young age, millennials say acute and chronic pain are already interfering with their quality of life.
READ MORE: Millennials prefer healthy habits, less likely to choose opioids to manage pain

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When making decisions, monkeys use different brain areas to weigh value and availability

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When making decisions, monkeys use different brain areas to weigh value and availability
Source: Science Daily
Seventeenth-century mathematician Blaise Pascal first introduced the idea of expected value, which is reached by multiplying the value of something (how much it’s wanted or needed) with the probability that we might be able to obtain it. Now some very 21st century research is showing for the first time in monkeys which parts of the brain are involved in the two-pronged decision-making process that determines this expected value.
READ MORE: When making decisions, monkeys use different brain areas to weigh value and availability

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When it comes to looking for jobs, it's not how many you know, but how well you know them

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When it comes to looking for jobs, it’s not how many you know, but how well you know them
Source: Science Daily
While online networking sites enable individuals to increase their professional connections, to what extent do these ties actually lead to job opportunities? A new study finds that, despite the ability to significantly increase the number of professional connections and identify more job leads with limited effort on these sites, unless the connection is a strong one, they typically will not lead to job offers.
READ MORE: When it comes to looking for jobs, it’s not how many you know, but how well you know them

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Shifting school start times could contribute $83 billion to US economy within a decade

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Shifting school start times could contribute billion to US economy within a decade
Source: Science Daily
RAND Corporation and RAND Europe have released the first-ever analysis of the economic implications of a shift in school start times in the US. The study shows that a nationwide move to 8.30 a.m. could lead to an economic gain of $83 billion to the US economy within a decade. The gains projected through the study’s economic model would be realized through the higher academic and professional performance of students, and reduced car crash rates.
READ MORE: Shifting school start times could contribute billion to US economy within a decade

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Patient plays saxophone while surgeons remove brain tumor

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Patient plays saxophone while surgeons remove brain tumor
Source: Science Daily
Music is not only a major part of Dan Fabbio’s life, as a music teacher it is his livelihood. So when doctors discovered a tumor located in the part of his brain responsible for music function, he began a long journey that involved a team of physicians, scientists, and a music professor and culminated with him awake and playing a saxophone as surgeons operated on his brain.
READ MORE: Patient plays saxophone while surgeons remove brain tumor

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Stroke patient improvement with a brain-computer interface

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Stroke patient improvement with a brain-computer interface
Source: Science Daily
It is possible for stroke patients to improve motor function using special training involving connecting brain signals with a computer, research shows.
READ MORE: Stroke patient improvement with a brain-computer interface

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Tiny nanopackages built out of DNA help scientists peek at how neurons work

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Tiny nanopackages built out of DNA help scientists peek at how neurons work
Source: Science Daily
Scientists have designed a way to use microscopic capsules made out of DNA to deliver a payload of tiny molecules directly into a cell. The technique gives scientists an opportunity to understand certain interactions among cells that have previously been hard to track.
READ MORE: Tiny nanopackages built out of DNA help scientists peek at how neurons work

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Pain, emotions and the placebo effect

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Pain, emotions and the placebo effect
Source: Science Daily
In a pioneering study, researchers used fMRI technology to show that a person’s ability to reinterpret negative events and to control feelings influences how strongly a placebo will work to reduce pain.
READ MORE: Pain, emotions and the placebo effect

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Brain stimulation for children with learning difficulties?

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Brain stimulation for children with learning difficulties?
Source: Science Daily
Applying a brain stimulation method, which was previously suggested to enhance mathematical learning in healthy adults, may improve the performance of children with mathematical learning difficulties, according to an exploratory study.
READ MORE: Brain stimulation for children with learning difficulties?

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New science to optimize radiation dosage in pediatric imaging

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New science to optimize radiation dosage in pediatric imaging
Source: Science Daily
A new framework giving imaging practitioners the ability to optimize pediatric patients’ care for tailoring radiation doses for accurate imaging tasks.
READ MORE: New science to optimize radiation dosage in pediatric imaging

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Biochemists simulate a protein-folding chaperone's functional dance

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Biochemists simulate a protein-folding chaperone’s functional dance
Source: Science Daily
Using a combination of computational and experimental techniques, a research team has demystified the pathway of interdomain communication in a family of proteins known as Hsp70s — a top target of dozens of research laboratories trying to develop new anti-cancer drugs, antibiotics and treatments for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.
READ MORE: Biochemists simulate a protein-folding chaperone’s functional dance

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Exclusion from school can trigger long-term psychiatric illness

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Exclusion from school can trigger long-term psychiatric illness
Source: Science Daily
Excluding children from school may lead to long-term psychiatric problems and psychological distress, a study of thousands of children has shown.
READ MORE: Exclusion from school can trigger long-term psychiatric illness

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Origins of autism: Abnormalities in sensory processing at six months

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Origins of autism: Abnormalities in sensory processing at six months
Source: Science Daily
The origins of autism remain mysterious. What areas of the brain are involved, and when do the first signs appear? New findings brings us closer to understanding the pathology of autism, and the point at which it begins to take shape in the human brain. Such knowledge will allow earlier interventions in the future and better outcomes for autistic children.
READ MORE: Origins of autism: Abnormalities in sensory processing at six months

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Inattentive kids show worse grades in later life

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Inattentive kids show worse grades in later life
Source: Science Daily
Researchers found that inattentiveness in childhood was linked to worse academic performance up to 10 years later in children with and without ADHD, even when they accounted for the children’s intellectual ability. The results highlight the long-term effects that childhood inattention can have on academic performance, and suggest that parents and teachers should address inattentiveness in childhood.
READ MORE: Inattentive kids show worse grades in later life

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Doping in sports: Official tests fail to pick up majority of cases

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Doping in sports: Official tests fail to pick up majority of cases
Source: Science Daily
A new scientific study has found that doping is far more common in professional sport than the rates suggested by blood and urine tests of the athletes.
READ MORE: Doping in sports: Official tests fail to pick up majority of cases

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It's not a rat's race for human stem cells grafted to repair spinal cord injuries

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It’s not a rat’s race for human stem cells grafted to repair spinal cord injuries
Source: Science Daily
More than one-and-a-half years after implantation, researchers report that human neural stem cells (NSCs) grafted into spinal cord injuries in laboratory rats displayed continued growth and maturity, with functional recovery beginning one year after grafting.
READ MORE: It’s not a rat’s race for human stem cells grafted to repair spinal cord injuries

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Romance and affection top most popular sexual behaviors

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Romance and affection top most popular sexual behaviors
Source: Science Daily
Researchers have published a new US nationally representative study of sexual behavior, the first of its kind to capture a wide range of diverse sexual behaviors not previously examined in the general population.
READ MORE: Romance and affection top most popular sexual behaviors

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Complete remission of brain metastasis of difficult-to-treat tumor

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Complete remission of brain metastasis of difficult-to-treat tumor
Source: Science Daily
Medical researchers report a remarkable treatment response in a patient participating in a clinical trial of a novel immune-system-based cancer therapy.
READ MORE: Complete remission of brain metastasis of difficult-to-treat tumor

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Using donor stem cells to treat spinal cord injury

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Using donor stem cells to treat spinal cord injury
Source: Science Daily
A new study in mice details a potential therapeutic strategy that uses stem cells to promote recovery of motor activity after spinal cord injury.
READ MORE: Using donor stem cells to treat spinal cord injury

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Brain's defense cells live longer than expected

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Brain’s defense cells live longer than expected
Source: Science Daily
In mice, microglia may persist the entire lifespan of the animal. The cells’ lifetime may be linked to their role in immune memory and neurodegenerative diseases.
READ MORE: Brain’s defense cells live longer than expected

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Relative risk of Alzheimer's between men and women: Record corrected

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Relative risk of Alzheimer’s between men and women: Record corrected
Source: Science Daily
White women whose genetic makeup puts them at higher risk for Alzheimer’s disease are more likely than white men to develop the disease during a critical 10-year span in their lives. The findings from one of the world’s largest big-data studies on Alzheimer’s counter long-held beliefs about who is at greatest risk for the disease and when, suggesting new avenues for clinical trials.
READ MORE: Relative risk of Alzheimer’s between men and women: Record corrected

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'Marrying up' is now easier for men, improves their economic well-being, study finds

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‘Marrying up’ is now easier for men, improves their economic well-being, study finds
Source: Science Daily
As the number of highly educated women has increased in recent decades, the chances of ‘marrying up’ have increased significantly for men and decreased for women, according to a new study.
READ MORE: ‘Marrying up’ is now easier for men, improves their economic well-being, study finds

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Reducing inflammation without lowering cholesterol cuts risk of cardiovascular events

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Reducing inflammation without lowering cholesterol cuts risk of cardiovascular events
Source: Science Daily
Investigators have announced results of a clinical trial culminating from 25 years of cardiovascular research work. The team reports a significant reduction in risk of recurrent heart attacks, strokes and cardiovascular death among participants who received a targeted anti-inflammatory drug that lowered inflammation but had no effects on cholesterol.
READ MORE: Reducing inflammation without lowering cholesterol cuts risk of cardiovascular events

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Burdens of spousal caregiving alleviated by appreciation, study finds

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Burdens of spousal caregiving alleviated by appreciation, study finds
Source: Science Daily
The fact that spouses often become caregivers for their ailing partners is quite common in American life — and few roles are more stressful. But a new study suggests that spending time attempting to provide help can be beneficial for a caregiver’s well-being, but only under certain circumstances.
READ MORE: Burdens of spousal caregiving alleviated by appreciation, study finds

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Brain changes linked to physical, mental health in functional neurological disorder

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Brain changes linked to physical, mental health in functional neurological disorder
Source: Science Daily
An imaging study has identified differences in key brain structures of individuals whose physical or mental health has been most seriously impaired by a common but poorly understood condition called functional neurological disorder, sometimes called conversion disorder.
READ MORE: Brain changes linked to physical, mental health in functional neurological disorder

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Chronic lack of sleep increases risk-seeking

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Chronic lack of sleep increases risk-seeking
Source: Science Daily
Sleepiness, reduced concentration and performance — more and more people are suffering from the consequences of a chronic lack of sleep. Researchers have now demonstrated a further consequence: the people affected are subject to more intensive risk-seeking behavior without even noticing.
READ MORE: Chronic lack of sleep increases risk-seeking

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Eating triggers endorphin release in the brain

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Eating triggers endorphin release in the brain
Source: Science Daily
Researchers have revealed how eating stimulates brain’s endogenous opioid system to signal pleasure and satiety.
READ MORE: Eating triggers endorphin release in the brain

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Combination therapy works best for heart diseases

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Combination therapy works best for heart diseases
Source: Science Daily
A major international study has found that the combination of two drugs — rivaroxaban and aspirin — is superior to aspirin alone in preventing further heart complications in people with vascular disease. The study of 27,400 people with stable coronary or peripheral artery disease from 33 countries worldwide shows that the combination of 2.5 mg of rivaroxaban twice daily plus 100 mg of aspirin once daily was significantly better than only aspirin or only rivaroxaban in preventing heart attacks, strokes and early death.
READ MORE: Combination therapy works best for heart diseases

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Augmented reality technology may help guide plastic and reconstructive surgery

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Augmented reality technology may help guide plastic and reconstructive surgery
Source: Science Daily
A plastic surgery research group has developed an augmented reality system that enables them to create 3D simulations of the desired results of facial reconstructive procedures and project them over the patient’s face during surgery.
READ MORE: Augmented reality technology may help guide plastic and reconstructive surgery

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Given the choice, zebrafish willingly dose themselves with opioids

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Given the choice, zebrafish willingly dose themselves with opioids
Source: Science Daily
Researchers devised a system that allowed zebrafish to self-administer doses of hydrocodone, an opioid commonly prescribed to people for pain, to study drug dependency behavior.
READ MORE: Given the choice, zebrafish willingly dose themselves with opioids

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Fragile X syndrome: Early detection important

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Fragile X syndrome: Early detection important
Source: Science Daily
New insights into the long-lasting effects of Fragile X syndrome on connections in the brain during early development highlight the importance of early detection and treatment.
READ MORE: Fragile X syndrome: Early detection important

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Dancing can reverse the signs of aging in the brain

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Dancing can reverse the signs of aging in the brain
Source: Science Daily
Physical exercise has an anti-aging effect on the hippocampus region of the brain — an area that controls memory, learning and balance. A new study, comparing different forms of exercise — dancing and endurance training — undertaken by elderly volunteers for eighteen months, shows that both can have an anti-aging effect on the brain, but only dancing corresponded to a noticeable difference in behavior. This difference is attributed to the extra challenge of learning dancing routines.
READ MORE: Dancing can reverse the signs of aging in the brain

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Ringing in ears keeps brain more at attention, less at rest, study finds

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Ringing in ears keeps brain more at attention, less at rest, study finds
Source: Science Daily
Tinnitus, a chronic ringing or buzzing in the ears, has eluded medical treatment and scientific understanding. A new study found that chronic tinnitus is associated with changes in certain networks in the brain, and furthermore, those changes cause the brain to stay more at attention and less at rest. The finding provides patients with validation of their experiences and hope for future treatment options.
READ MORE: Ringing in ears keeps brain more at attention, less at rest, study finds

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Magic enzymes in 'magic' mushrooms analyzed

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Magic enzymes in ‘magic’ mushrooms analyzed
Source: Science Daily
Little fungi pack a punch: ‘Magic mushrooms’ of the Psilocybe species produce psychoactive compounds that alter perception when ingested. Recently, the effects on the neuronal system caused by their ingredient psilocybin have attracted the interest of pharmacologists. Scientists have now identified four of the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of psilocybin. Researchers describe the biosynthetic pathway and introduce a synthetic route that could form the basis of biotechnological production.
READ MORE: Magic enzymes in ‘magic’ mushrooms analyzed

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New light on link between gut bacteria and anxiety

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New light on link between gut bacteria and anxiety
Source: Science Daily
New research sheds new light on how gut bacteria may influence anxiety-like behaviors. Investigating the link between gut bacteria and biological molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) in the brain; researchers found that a significant number of miRNAs were changed in the brains of microbe-free mice.
READ MORE: New light on link between gut bacteria and anxiety

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How the human brain detects the 'music' of speech

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How the human brain detects the ‘music’ of speech
Source: Science Daily
Researchers have identified neurons in the human brain that respond to pitch changes in spoken language, which are essential to clearly conveying both meaning and emotion.
READ MORE: How the human brain detects the ‘music’ of speech

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Toward an early Alzheimer's test

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Toward an early Alzheimer’s test
Source: Science Daily
Researchers have demonstrated the promise of an early blood test for Alzheimer’s disease. The results suggest that Alzheimer’s can be detected even before the onset of symptoms in persons at genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease.
READ MORE: Toward an early Alzheimer’s test

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High achievers in competitive courses more likely to cheat on college exams

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High achievers in competitive courses more likely to cheat on college exams
Source: Science Daily
A new study finds that students who are known as “high achievers” and take highly competitive courses are the most likely to cheat on their exams.
READ MORE: High achievers in competitive courses more likely to cheat on college exams

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Playing the publishing ‘game’: Making the most of reviewers’ comments

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Playing the publishing ‘game’: Making the most of reviewers’ comments
Source: Science Daily
Reviewer comments on a scientific manuscript may seem critical and personal to authors, but they are generally well thought out and meant to enhance the understandability and integrity of the paper.
READ MORE: Playing the publishing ‘game’: Making the most of reviewers’ comments

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Young children's sense of self is similar to that of adults

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Young children’s sense of self is similar to that of adults
Source: Science Daily
Young children’s sense of self is similar to that of older kids and adults. The results show that our ability to reason about our self-worth as individuals develops early in life.
READ MORE: Young children’s sense of self is similar to that of adults

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One in five women with postpartum mood disorders keep quiet

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One in five women with postpartum mood disorders keep quiet
Source: Science Daily
A recent study finds that 21 percent of recent mothers experiencing postpartum mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, do not disclose their symptoms to healthcare providers.
READ MORE: One in five women with postpartum mood disorders keep quiet

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Panic disorder symptoms may be tied to acid-sensing receptor

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Panic disorder symptoms may be tied to acid-sensing receptor
Source: Science Daily
A pilot study — the first to evaluate the TDAG8 expression in patients with panic disorder — reveals significantly increased levels in patients with panic disorder, relative to their healthy control subjects. Researchers found an association with TDAG8 and symptom severity, and observed a relationship between TDAG8 and treatment response in patients who had been treated with antidepressants.
READ MORE: Panic disorder symptoms may be tied to acid-sensing receptor

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How the emotions of others influence our olfactory sense

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How the emotions of others influence our olfactory sense
Source: Science Daily
The emotional facial expression of others influences how positive or negative we perceive an odor. The basis of this effect seems to be the activity of a brain area that is relevant for smelling and is activated even before we perceive an odor.
READ MORE: How the emotions of others influence our olfactory sense

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HIIT releases endorphins in the brain

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HIIT releases endorphins in the brain
Source: Science Daily
Researchers have revealed that exercise-induced endorphin release in the brain depends on the intensity of the exercise. Endorphin release induced by exercise may be an important mechanism which affects exercise motivation and maintenance of regular physical activity.
READ MORE: HIIT releases endorphins in the brain

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Mathematical tools improve theory, prediction in psychiatry

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Mathematical tools improve theory, prediction in psychiatry
Source: Science Daily
Recent years have seen an explosion in the use of mathematical models to integrate insights emerging from studies of the brain and behavior. This approach has been used to develop new theoretical perspectives that can enrich data analysis, which researchers hope will help explain mechanisms behind complex psychiatric diseases and improve treatment for patients.
READ MORE: Mathematical tools improve theory, prediction in psychiatry

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Could nicotine reduction help curb addiction?

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Could nicotine reduction help curb addiction?
Source: Science Daily
A new study examining the effects of nicotine reduction among more vulnerable smokers supports the FDA’s recent recommendation for lowering nicotine to non-addictive levels.
READ MORE: Could nicotine reduction help curb addiction?

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Altered mitochondria associated with increased autism risk

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Altered mitochondria associated with increased autism risk
Source: Science Daily
Mitochondria, the tiny structures inside our cells that generate energy, may play a key role in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A provocative new study suggests that variations in mitochondrial DNA originating during ancient human migrations may play an important role in predisposition to ASD.
READ MORE: Altered mitochondria associated with increased autism risk

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Personality drives purchasing of luxury goods

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Personality drives purchasing of luxury goods
Source: Science Daily
People who are extraverted and on low incomes buy more luxury goods than their introverted peers to compensate for the experience of low financial status, finds new research.
READ MORE: Personality drives purchasing of luxury goods

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Use of brain-computer interface, virtual avatar could help people with gait disabilities

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Use of brain-computer interface, virtual avatar could help people with gait disabilities
Source: Science Daily
Researchers have shown for the first time that the use of a brain-computer interface augmented with a virtual walking avatar can control gait, suggesting the protocol may help patients recover the ability to walk after stroke, some spinal cord injuries and certain other gait disabilities.
READ MORE: Use of brain-computer interface, virtual avatar could help people with gait disabilities

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Discovery fuels hope for Rett syndrome treatment

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Discovery fuels hope for Rett syndrome treatment
Source: Science Daily
Researchers have relieved symptoms of Rett syndrome in a mouse model with a small molecule that works like the dimmer switch in an electrical circuit.
READ MORE: Discovery fuels hope for Rett syndrome treatment

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Smokers in clinical studies who say they've quit often haven't

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Smokers in clinical studies who say they’ve quit often haven’t
Source: Science Daily
A new US study has found that a high proportion of smokers enrolled in stop-smoking programs during a hospital stay report having quit when in fact they have not. The findings mean that in these kinds of study it is vital to check claims of having quit using an objective measure.
READ MORE: Smokers in clinical studies who say they’ve quit often haven’t

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Antipsychotics common for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities

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Antipsychotics common for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities
Source: Science Daily
Antipsychotic medication is frequently being prescribed to individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, often without a psychiatric diagnosis, a new study has found.
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Psychotic disorders and obesity: New report shows big waistlines are to blame

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Psychotic disorders and obesity: New report shows big waistlines are to blame
Source: Science Daily
A number of factors, including obesity, shorten the lifespan for those with schizophrenia by 20 years and by 10 years for those with bipolar disorder compared to the general population. In the first study to compare long-term weight gain across psychotic disorders, researchers show that expanding waistlines and the way body fat is distributed are largely to blame.
READ MORE: Psychotic disorders and obesity: New report shows big waistlines are to blame

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Children with fragile X syndrome have a bias toward threatening emotion

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Children with fragile X syndrome have a bias toward threatening emotion
Source: Science Daily
Anxiety occurs at high rates in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Children with co-occurring anxiety tend to fare worse, but it can be hard to identify in infants. A new study reports that infants and children with FXS show bias toward threatening emotion, rather than positive emotion, a pattern highly linked with anxiety.
READ MORE: Children with fragile X syndrome have a bias toward threatening emotion

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A song's structure can be linked to its popularity

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A song’s structure can be linked to its popularity
Source: Science Daily
Music can elicit strong emotions, which can be hard to describe. A new study has found that a simple change in harmonic structure can contribute to our preference for certain songs. Analyzing the chords of over 500 pop songs between 1958 and 1991, the study reveals a link between those showing higher ‘harmonic surprise’ (chords that do not usually follow each other) and their popularity in the Billboard Top 100 chart.
READ MORE: A song’s structure can be linked to its popularity

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So-called 'bright girl effect' does not last into adulthood, study finds

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So-called ‘bright girl effect’ does not last into adulthood, study finds
Source: Science Daily
The notion that young females limit their own progress based on what they believe about their intelligence — called the ‘bright girl effect’ — does not persist into adulthood, according to new research.
READ MORE: So-called ‘bright girl effect’ does not last into adulthood, study finds

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Firing of neurons changes the cells that insulate them

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Firing of neurons changes the cells that insulate them
Source: Science Daily
Through their pattern of firing, neurons influence the behavior of the cells that upon maturation will provide insulation of neuronal axons, according to a new study. The findings suggest the existence of a complex and nuanced interplay between neurons and the non-neuronal cells that support and protect them.
READ MORE: Firing of neurons changes the cells that insulate them

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Like adults, children show bias in attributing mental states to others

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Like adults, children show bias in attributing mental states to others
Source: Science Daily
Young children are more likely to attribute mental states to characters that belong to the same group as them relative to characters that belong to an outside group, according to new findings. The study shows that 5- and 6-year-olds were more likely to describe interactions between two characters in terms of what they were thinking and feeling when the characters had the same gender or geographic origin as them.
READ MORE: Like adults, children show bias in attributing mental states to others

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Scientists find RNA with special role in nerve healing process

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Scientists find RNA with special role in nerve healing process
Source: Science Daily
The discovery in lab mice that an ‘anti-sense’ RNA is expressed after nerve injury to regulate the repair of damage to the nerve’s myelin coating could lead to a treatment that improves healing in people.
READ MORE: Scientists find RNA with special role in nerve healing process

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Serotonin may worsen tinnitus

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Serotonin may worsen tinnitus
Source: Science Daily
Millions of people suffer from the constant sensation of ringing or buzzing in the ears known as tinnitus, creating constant irritation for some and severe anxiety for others. Research shows why a common antidepressant medication may worsen the condition.
READ MORE: Serotonin may worsen tinnitus

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The environment can become a noninvasive therapeutic approach to bolster white matter health

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The environment can become a noninvasive therapeutic approach to bolster white matter health
Source: Science Daily
Those parents you overhear transforming trips to the grocery store into sensory adventures — telling babies too young to babble that broccoli is GREEN, radishes are RED and tangerines are ORANGE — are onto something. Being exposed to a complex and stimulating environment rich with new sights, sounds and a full vocabulary can play a powerful role in strengthening infants’ developing brains.
READ MORE: The environment can become a noninvasive therapeutic approach to bolster white matter health

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Opioid crisis in Staten Island affects all races, ages, and socioeconomic backgrounds

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Opioid crisis in Staten Island affects all races, ages, and socioeconomic backgrounds
Source: Science Daily
Contrary to media reports, the opioid epidemic on New York’s Staten Island is not confined to affluent young white residents, and affects all neighborhoods, races, ages, and socioeconomic backgrounds.
READ MORE: Opioid crisis in Staten Island affects all races, ages, and socioeconomic backgrounds

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Yoga and meditation improve mind-body health and stress resilience

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Yoga and meditation improve mind-body health and stress resilience
Source: Science Daily
A new research article investigates the effects of yoga and meditation on people by looking at physiological and immunological markers of stress and inflammation. By studying the participants of an intensive three-month yoga and meditation retreat, the researchers found that the practices positively impacted physiological and immunological markers of stress and inflammation, and in addition improved subjective wellbeing.
READ MORE: Yoga and meditation improve mind-body health and stress resilience

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Wealth disparity and family income impact the brain development of female youth

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Wealth disparity and family income impact the brain development of female youth
Source: Science Daily
Female teenagers living in neighborhoods with wide salary gaps and a low-income household show changes to their brain maturation that could indicate a higher risk of developing mental illness in adulthood.
READ MORE: Wealth disparity and family income impact the brain development of female youth

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The brains of newborns distinguish between caresses

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The brains of newborns distinguish between caresses
Source: Science Daily
The ability to distinguish between different kinds of caresses on the skin already exists at a very early age. This is evident from a study in which the blood supply in brains of infants 6 to 10 weeks old was investigated.    
READ MORE: The brains of newborns distinguish between caresses

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A disposable alcohol test reveals whether you are fit to drive within two minutes

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A disposable alcohol test reveals whether you are fit to drive within two minutes
Source: Science Daily
A rapid alcohol test that measures the blood alcohol content from saliva has been developed. The disposable test fits easily into a small wallet and reveals the user’s fitness to drive within couple of minutes.
READ MORE: A disposable alcohol test reveals whether you are fit to drive within two minutes

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You may be as friendly as your genes

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You may be as friendly as your genes
Source: Science Daily
Scientists have found that CD38 and CD157 genes that regulate oxytocin, the supreme human social hormone, are associated with the sociality of young individuals. They found that young adults who have higher expression of the CD38 gene as well as differences in CD157 gene sequence are friendlier and more socially adept than others. They have more close friends and show greater social skills.
READ MORE: You may be as friendly as your genes

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Social media culture can encourage risky and inappropriate posting behavior

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Social media culture can encourage risky and inappropriate posting behavior
Source: Science Daily
Young adults who adapt their behavior to match a social situation are just as likely to post offensive content online as those who act impulsively, according to a new study — suggesting there’s a wider social media culture that encourages risky behavior.
READ MORE: Social media culture can encourage risky and inappropriate posting behavior

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Afternoon slump in reward response

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Afternoon slump in reward response
Source: Science Daily
Activation of a reward-processing brain region peaks in the morning and evening and dips at 2 p.m., finds a study of healthy young men. This finding may parallel the drop in alertness people tend to feel in mid-afternoon.
READ MORE: Afternoon slump in reward response

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People favor highly reviewed products, even when they shouldn't

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People favor highly reviewed products, even when they shouldn’t
Source: Science Daily
When we’re trying to decide which cell phone case to buy or which hotel room to book, we often rely on the ratings and reviews of others to help us choose. But new research suggests that we tend to use this information in ways that can actually work to our disadvantage.
READ MORE: People favor highly reviewed products, even when they shouldn’t

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'Exquisite selectivity' of neuronal wiring in the cerebral cortex revealed by research

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‘Exquisite selectivity’ of neuronal wiring in the cerebral cortex revealed by research
Source: Science Daily
Advanced technologies has been used to illuminate the connectivity pattern of chandelier cells, a distinctive kind of inhibitory cell type in the mammalian brain. Scientists reveal for the first time how this candelabra-shaped cell interacts in a highly selective way with hundreds of excitatory cells in its neighborhood, receiving information from some, imparting information to others.
READ MORE: ‘Exquisite selectivity’ of neuronal wiring in the cerebral cortex revealed by research

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Are there ethnic differences in cognitive outcomes based on BP targets?

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Are there ethnic differences in cognitive outcomes based on BP targets?
Source: Science Daily
A new article investigates how various blood pressure targets for older patients treated for hypertension were associated with cognitive function and if ethnic differences existed in long-term cognitive outcomes.
READ MORE: Are there ethnic differences in cognitive outcomes based on BP targets?

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What is the global prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder?

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What is the global prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder?
Source: Science Daily
New reserach estimates the global prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) among children and youth.
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Security issues with health apps for dementia patients uncovered by researchers

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Security issues with health apps for dementia patients uncovered by researchers
Source: Science Daily
Many health apps designed to assist dementia patients and their caregivers have inadequate security policies or lack security policies altogether, new research concludes.
READ MORE: Security issues with health apps for dementia patients uncovered by researchers

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Do video game players make the best unmanned pilots?

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Do video game players make the best unmanned pilots?
Source: Science Daily
New research highlights the usefulness of video game players as unmanned aircraft operators.
READ MORE: Do video game players make the best unmanned pilots?

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80 percent of Ebola survivors suffer disabilities one year after discharge

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80 percent of Ebola survivors suffer disabilities one year after discharge
Source: Science Daily
New research highlights the need for long-term rehabilitation of Ebola survivors after almost 80 percent of those interviewed were found to have major limitations in mobility, cognition and vision.
READ MORE: 80 percent of Ebola survivors suffer disabilities one year after discharge

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Better odor recognition in odour-colour synesthesia

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Better odor recognition in odour-colour synesthesia
Source: Science Daily
People who see colors while perceiving smells are better at distinguishing between different smells and different colors, and are better at naming odors, compared to a group without synesthesia.
READ MORE: Better odor recognition in odour-colour synesthesia

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Our brains do change from early to mid-adulthood

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Our brains do change from early to mid-adulthood
Source: Science Daily
Scientists have been able to accurately estimate an individual’s age from their brain structure. The researchers found that significant microstructural changes occur in the brain from early to mid-adulthood. Until now, scientists thought that brain structure was relatively stable during this period of life, and this is one of the first studies to show that our brains continue to change throughout our early and mid-adulthood.
READ MORE: Our brains do change from early to mid-adulthood

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Chronic stress induces fatal organ dysfunctions via a new neural circuit

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Chronic stress induces fatal organ dysfunctions via a new neural circuit
Source: Science Daily
New research reveals the mechanisms behind the effects of chronic stress and tiny inflammations in the brain on fatal gut failure.
READ MORE: Chronic stress induces fatal organ dysfunctions via a new neural circuit

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Both chimpanzees and humans spontaneously imitate each other's actions

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Both chimpanzees and humans spontaneously imitate each other’s actions
Source: Science Daily
Decades of research has shown that apes, in spite of their proverbial aping abilities, are rather poor imitators, especially when compared to human children. Current theories hold that apes are worse imitators because they lack this social and communicative side of imitation. A new study has instead targeted the interactive side of imitation directly, and finds that the divide between humans and chimpanzees is less clear cut.
READ MORE: Both chimpanzees and humans spontaneously imitate each other’s actions

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To reduce postoperative pain, consider sleep — and caffeine

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To reduce postoperative pain, consider sleep — and caffeine
Source: Science Daily
A new preclinical study found that a brief period of extended wakefulness before surgery enhances pain and prolongs recovery time after surgery. Caffeine administration helped to reduce the harmful effects of sleep loss on subsequent surgical pain.
READ MORE: To reduce postoperative pain, consider sleep — and caffeine

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Despite benefits, half of parents against later school start times

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Despite benefits, half of parents against later school start times
Source: Science Daily
Leading pediatrics and sleep associations agree: Teens shouldn’t start school so early. Yet recent research finds parents are split almost down the middle on whether they support delays in school start times that might permit their 13- to 17-year-olds to sleep later on school days.
READ MORE: Despite benefits, half of parents against later school start times

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